Producers should be on the lookout for green to blue-green scum or a gelatinous mass on the surface of their livestock's fresh water supplies.
"Algae blooms cause major disruptions not only because of their offensive odor and appearance; they can be potentially fatal to livestock," says Roxanne Johnson, North Dakota State University Extension Service water quality associate. "Not all algae blooms are toxic, but without laboratory analysis, it is impossible to identify poisonous species."
This scum actually is not an algae, but photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria that rely on sunlight for energy. As they store energy, they create a tiny cavity of air that allows them to move up and down in the water to areas with more nutrients. As environmental conditions improve with warm weather, calm winds and abundant nutrients (particularly phosphorus and nitrogen), the bacteria numbers increase. A "bloom" of green or blue-green algae on the surface of the water may appear overnight, accompanied by an unmistakable musty, earthy or putrid odor.
Concentrations of algae develop as wind moves the toxin to the leeward, or downward, shore, where producers may find evidence of toxicity, such as dead mice, snakes and other animals near the water's edge. Toxicity is dependent on the species consuming the water, and the concentration and the amount of water ingested.
Blue-green algae produce two toxins, each with different symptoms. Signs of neurotoxin poisoning usually appear within 15 to 20 minutes after ingestion. In animals, symptoms include weakness, staggering, difficulty in breathing, convulsions and ultimately death. In humans, symptoms may include numbness of the lips, tingling in fingers and toes, and dizziness. Signs of liver poisoning may take hours or days to appear. Liver toxins can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting in humans and death in animals.
Most blooms are obvious to the naked eye; however, blue-green algae can be present in water without a visible bloom, Johnson says. She advises producers to treat their water if they've previously had blooms.
Treatments include using an aeration/mixing device to create turbulence in the water or minimizing nutrient levels by establishing vegetated buffer strips around the water to intercept nutrients before they reach the water. Another long-term strategy is limiting livestock's pond or dugout access to areas that have been stabilized to prevent damage from trampling. Producers also may choose to pump water to a tank or trough after fencing the water source to keep livestock out.
Johnson advises producers to clean stock tanks on an annual basis to keep algae growth to a minimum.
For procedures on treating water, check out NDSU Extension Service publication AS-954, "Livestock and Water" at www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs. Source: North Dakota State University Extension Service