GRAND FORKS - North Dakota and Minnesota experienced some of the most growth among heartland states from 2010 to 2016, according to a Brookings Institute study. Much of North Dakota's growth has been driven by an increase in energy extraction fields and the oil boom, the study claimed.

The survey included 19 states in the "heartland region" stretching from Oklahoma to Ohio.

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North Dakota saw jobs increase by about 2.1 percent annually, the study said. Wages also increased, growing about 2.4 percent and setting the average wage at $47,000 per year. The state still was below the heartland average of $48,000, however.

Huge swings tied to the oil boom pushed growth in North Dakota drastically since 2010, but the region then saw massive declines as the industry plummeted, the study said.

Population skyrocketed, increasing 1.6 percent yearly. The changes drove up home value growth, the fastest growing values in the country, the study said. Values increased 5.3 percent, placing the median home value at $165,000 in 2016.

The state also saw growth in rural and micropolitan areas, which shrunk in every other state. North Dakota saw 2 percent growth in metropolitan areas, 2.1 percent growth in micropolitan areas and 1.1 percent growth in rural areas. On average, rural areas in the heartland shrunk by 0.4 percent yearly and by 0.2 percent in the rest of the country. North Dakota's rural growth was attributed to the oil and gas boom's focus on small towns.

North Dakota had the highest GDP per capita in 2014, which led to a higher standard of living. Across the country, the average GDP per capita in 2016 was $57,000. In North Dakota, it averages $70,000, largely attributed to the highs attained until 2014, when the GDP reached $80,000. The state has seen an annual decline of 6.4 percent during the past four years, the study said.

North Dakota also was a leader in poverty rate reduction, with the second-lowest poverty rate in the heartland at 10.5 percent. Minnesota has the lowest poverty rate in the heartland and ranks fourth in the country at 9.9 percent.

Minnesota also was a leader among heartland states for education attainment. It ranks 12th overall in the country, and 34.8 percent of workers have a bachelor's degree, a 3 percent growth since 2010. The state also is known for rapidly developing its technology and science workforce, the study said.

The state also was among the healthiest in the heartland, as it was the only state in the area with an obesity rate lower than the national average of 28.2 percent. Minnesota's 27.8 percent obesity rate ranks it as the 18th lowest in the country.

Minnesota also saw positive growth in jobs, housing and broadband access, according to the study.

Throughout the heartland, the study concludes the area has seen steady job growth, increased wages and decreased poverty rates from 2010 to 2016.