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Patrick Springer

Patrick Springer first joined The Forum in 1985. He covers a wide range of subjects including health care, energy and population trends. Email address: pspringer@forumcomm.com

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Bison that lived 3,000 years ago were 37% larger than those living today because of a warming climate — a trend that will accelerate, with bison projected to become 46% smaller by the end of the century. Bison are shaggy sentinels of climate change on the prairie.
Studies at the Sanford Center for Biobehavioral Research are looking at how inadequate sleep is related to binge eating and how some people process images of food and body type relate to binge eating. Both studies are recruiting participants.
Suspect made threats involving "Second Life" game players from outside of Minnesota, according to police.
A warmup is coming in June, but conflicting forces make it impossible to predict whether the summer will be hot and dry or hot and wet.
Essentia Health in Fargo is among the first to use a robotic endoscopy apparatus that allows low-risk access to hard-to-reach lung nodules in early development.
Infectious disease specialists say individual health status and vaccination history are important considerations in whether and when to get a second booster dose.
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A site near Bowman, North Dakota, has fossils revealing the last moments of the dinosaurs, wiped out millions of years ago. More findings from the site will be coming out.
Fall rains and winter snows allowed some areas of the Red River Valley to escape drought, while others remain abnormally dry or in drought.
Josiah Gillen, who has a transplanted kidney and has battled cancer, has a suppressed immune system, making him more susceptible to infections including COVID-19. A dual antibody treatment and two booster doses of vaccine offer hope patients like Josiah can live a more normal life.
North Dakota is slightly above the national average in the number of people taking mental health prescriptions, and has seen a sharp rise during the pandemic. Minnesota and South Dakota are closely behind North Dakota.